Operating System

Describe how I/O protection is achieved ?

I/O protection is achieved through dual-mode operation, which has two modes: user mode and monitor mode. In user mode, the CPU is restricted to unprivileged instructions and a specified area of memory. In monitor mode, the CPU can use all instructions and access all areas of memory. 

Here are some ways I/O protection is achieved:

  • Input and output permission bits: Restrict the access to I/O devices for all the user processes.
  • Virtual Memory Management (VMM) technology: Provides a different map of the physical memory in each process’s virtual address space, and every process can access a unique copy of the data.
  • Different permissions or rights: Can be assigned to different processes or users for accessing or using different I/O devices or data.
  • Data encryption: Can be used to protect the confidentiality and integrity of the data.
  • Access matrix: Provides the permissions for every process running in the domain for each object.

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