Computer Architecture

Discuss CPU Components and functions

A central processing unit (CPU) is a hardware component that’s the core computational unit in a server. Servers and other smart devices convert data into digital signals and perform mathematical operations on them. The CPU is the primary component that processes the signals and makes computing possible. It acts as the brain of any computing device. It fetches instructions from memory, performs the required tasks, and sends output back to memory. It handles all computing tasks required for running the operating system and applications.

The CPU contains three major parts as depicted in below diagram

  1. The register set which stores the intermediate data used during the execution of the instructions.
  2. The arithmetic logic unit that performs the required micro- operations for executing the instructions.
  3. The control unit that supervises the transfer of information among the registers and instructs the ALU as to which operation to perform.

The CPU performs a variety of functions dictated by the type of instructions which are incorporated in the computer. Sometimes, the computer architecture is defined as the computer structure and behavior as seen by the programmer which uses machine language instructions.

This includes the instruction set. addressing modes, the instruction formats, and the general organization of the CPU registers. The boundary where the computer designers and the computer programmers see the same machine is the part of the CPU associated with the instruction set.

From the designer’s point of view, the computer instruction set provides the specifications for the design of the CPU. Design of a CPU is a task that in large part involves selecting the hardware for implementing the machine instructions. The computer programmer who programs in machine or assembly language must be aware of the register set, the memory structure, the type of data supported by the instructions, and the function that each instruction performs.

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