Computer Architecture

 Explain the features of the Von-Neumann model.

The key features of Von-Neumann model are as follows –

(i) Data and instructions are stored in a single read-write memory.

(ii) The contents of this memory are addressable by location without regard to the type of data contained there.

(iii) Execution occurs in a sequential fashion (unless explicitly modified) from one instruction to the next.


The computer will have memory that can hold both data and also the program processing that data. In modern computers this memory is RAM.

Control Unit

The control unit will manage the process of moving data and programs into and out of memory and also deal with carrying out (executing) program instructions – one at a time. This includes the idea of a ‘register’ to hold intermediate values. In the illustration above, the ‘accumulator’ is one such register.

The ‘one-at-a-time’ phrase means that the von Neumann architecture is a sequential processing machine.

Input – Output

This architecture allows for the idea that a person needs to interact with the machine. Whatever values that are passed to and forth are stored once again in some internal registers.

Arithmetic Logic Unit

This part of the architecture is solely involved with carrying out calculations upon the data. All the usual Add, Multiply, Divide and Subtract calculations will be available but also data comparisons such as ‘Greater Than’, ‘Less Than’, ‘Equal To’ will be available.

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