Computer Architecture

write down the basic function of computers?

What is computers?

A computer may  be  defined as an electronic machine that can solve problems by accepting data ,performing certain operations and presenting the result of those operations under the direction of detailed step by step instruction .

A computer is an electronic device wherein we need to input raw data to be processed with a set of programs to produce a desirable output

Characteristics of Computer

Saves Time: A computer saves time by completing tasks quicker and more efficiently. For example, it can solve big complex problems within seconds which can save many minutes of ours.

Internet: Computers connect us to the internet which can help us to know important information from around the world, it can connect us with people from around the world through social networking sites, etc.

Storage: The computer gives us enough storage space that can be used to store a large amount of data including your projects, ebooks, documents, movies, pictures, songs, etc.

Entertainment: Computers are also a big source of entertainment as you can play games, listen to songs, watch movies, and can also use social networking sites.

Organized Data: It not only stores the data for you for also organizes the data for you. You can create different folders for different types of data and can easily access them when required.

Helps the physically challenged: Computers are a big boon for the physically challenged people as Stephen Hawking, who was not able to speak used the computer to speak.

Features of computer

Processing Power: Computers can execute instructions and perform calculations quickly.

Storage Capacity: They can store vast amounts of data, from documents to multimedia files.

Memory (RAM): Temporary storage used for actively running programs and processes.

Input Devices: Keyboards, mouse, and other peripherals allow users to input data.

Output Data: Monitors, printers, and speakers display or produce results.

Upgradability: Components like RAM, storage, and graphics cards can be upgraded.

Portability: Laptops and tablets offer mobility compared to desktop computers.

User Interface: Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) or command-line interfaces for interaction.

Security Features: Passwords, firewalls, and antivirus tools protect against unauthorized access.

Power Management: Features to optimize energy consumption.

Basic of computer

  • Data input 
  • Data processing
  • Data output
  • Data and information storage

Data input :-The input function refers to how information gets into the computer. Typical input devices include the keyboard, mouse, microphone, camera, and scanner. These allow users to enter data, select options, give commands, and more. Without input, a computer would just sit there without any purpose or utility.
The most common input devices are the keyboard and mouse. Almost all modern computers have these devices. Other common input devices are scanners, microphones, USB drives, and webcams

Data processing:-The central processing unit (CPU) takes information from input devices and memory storage and processes it according to programmed instructions. This processing function is the “brain” of the computer, allowing it to perform all types of calculations, render graphics, run programs, and carry out user commands.
To process the input data according to the instructions, the computer uses the CPU. A CPU is the main processing component of a computer. It processes user instructions, executes scripts and programs, and runs commands of the OS that provide a platform for installing and using application software.

Data output:-Processed information gets sent to output devices so users can interact with it. Monitors, speakers, printers, and more make up a computer’s output function. This return of processed information completes the basic computer functions cycle.
A user, based on his requirement, can connect and use two, three or more output devices to the computer. For example, after viewing the processed data, a user can send it to the printer for printing

Data Storage:– Storing data and information is the fourth major function of a computer. This function allows us to save the processed data for later use. To store data and information, a computer uses two types of storage components: temporary and permanent.temporary storage components are used to store data temporarily. Data stored in a temporary storage component is erased when the system is shutdown. RAM is a compulsory temporary storage component. A computer uses the ram to store the running applications and their data.

Input and output device of computer 

Input Device:-

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Trackball
  • Joystick
  • Touchpad
  • Touchscreen
  • Webcam
  • Microphone
  • Scanner
  • Biometric Scanner
  • RFID Reader
  • Digital Camera
  • Light Pen
  • Gamepad
  • Barcode Reader
  • Graphic Tablet
  • Motion Sensors
  • Stylus Pen
  • Gps Receiver
  • Brain-computer interface
  • Midi Controller

Output Device:-

  • Monitor
  • Printer
  • Projector
  • Plotter
  • Haptic Feedback
  • LCD/LED/Display
  • Speaker
  • Headphones
  • 3D-printer
  • Data Projector
  • Digital Photo Frame
  • Scoreboard Display

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